Expressions of Time in Ancient Greek (Cambridge Classical Studies)

By Coulter H. George

How did historical Greek show that an occasion happened at a selected time, for a undeniable period, or inside a given time-frame? the reply to those questions relies on various stipulations - the character of the time noun, the annoying and point of the verb, the actual old interval of Greek within which the writer lived - that latest reports of the language don't take sufficiently into consideration. This e-book consequently examines the conditions that govern using the genitive, dative, and accusative of time, in addition to the appropriate prepositional buildings, basically in Greek prose of the 5th century BC in the course of the moment century advert, but in addition in Homer. whereas the point of interest is on advancements in Greek, translations of the examples, in addition to an absolutely glossed precis bankruptcy, make it available to linguists drawn to the expression of time normally.

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Magazine. 1. 19, Ath. three. 4), one with ἔτος (An. five. three. 13); and there's one routine development with ἐνιαυτός (Mem. four. 7. 4). the single anomaly is the inexplicable genitive of HG 1. three. 1 (τοῦ δ’ ἐπιόντος ἔτους ὁ ἐν Φωκαίᾳ νεὼς τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἐνεπρήσθη). One expects the dative of time, at the foundation of HG 1. 6. 1, 2. 1. 10, and a couple of. three. 1, all of which start τῷ δ’ ἐπιόντι ἔτει. The distributive occasion sort can be frequently expressed through κατά+A. one hundred thirty x e n op h on desk eleven. Temporal structures with calendrical time nouns in Xenophon ἡμέρα genitive eleven× distrib. 18× habitual-modal 6× limitative 20× limitative ἐν+D 2× modal dative 36× punctualb μήν ἐνιαυτός 6× distrib. three× distrib. 2× habituala 1× ordinary ἔτος 1× distrib. 1× punctual five× limitative 1× limitative 2× limitative four× punctual 2× punctual eleven× punctual observe: a This counts instance (13) as ordinary. instance (7) is passed over from this desk. b ninety four× as a genitive of time, yet in basic terms three× as a dative; θέρος happens sixteen× and χειμών 17× as a temporal genitive, yet nor is ever used as a dative of time. yet once more, the uncooked info are to a point deceptive, because the contexts within which those nouns are used also are various from these favourite through the calendrical nouns. we start with θέρος and χειμών, either way more limited than νύξ of their diversity of expressions. The genitive of θέρος happens sixteen× in temporal expressions, in words with ἐν, 5×. All yet this kind of are modal-habitual expressions (only two times, at Mem. 2. 1. 30 and one of many examples at Oec. sixteen. 14, is θέρος no longer paired explicitly with one other contrasting time noun, almost always χειμών). the only exception is HG three. 2. 30, the place Xenophon makes use of the genitive of time in a punctual expression: (14) τοῦ δ’ ἐπιόντος θέρους πέμψας Θρασυδαῖος εἰς Λακεδαίμονα συνεχώρησε . . . And the following summer season, Thrasydaeus despatched notice to Sparta and agreed . . . (HG three. 2. 30) So too with χειμών (17× as a genitive of time, eight× with ἐν), approximately all of the structures are modal-habitual. Of the 3 exceptions, one is a punctual genitive of time, just like (14): (15) ἐξῆλθον δέ τινας καὶ ἄλλας ἐξόδους τοῦ χειμῶνος εἰς τὴν ἤπειρον καὶ ἐπόρθουν τὴν βασιλέως χώραν they usually went out on another raids throughout the wintry weather into the mainland and laid waste to the king’s land (HG 1. 2. 17) 131 ex p re s s i o ns of ti m e : s t y le , ge n re , a n d di a c h ro n y the opposite , either with ἐν, also are most likely most sensible categorised as punctual, even if they deviate from the prototypical development. In (16), the location of the word in an ἐπειδάν-clause may incline one to viewing it as ordinary; nonetheless, because it exhibits the actual second at which the solar adjustments path, a punctual examining turns out most suitable: (16) τὸ δὲ τὸν ἥλιον, ἐπειδὰν ἐν χειμῶνι τράπηται, προσιέναι And the truth that the solar, while it turns on the iciness solstice,28 attracts closer (Mem. four. three. eight) In (17), the presence of ἰσχυρῷ means that the noun refers to wintry weather much less as a time period than as a common situation of utmost chilly. 29 having said that, the motion in query is pinned all the way down to a specific time, so the punctual label back turns out most sensible: (17) ἐν γὰρ τῷ ἰσχυρῷ χειμῶνι καὶ αὐτός ποτε ἀναμένων τινὰς συσκευαζομένους καθεζόμενος συχνὸν χρόνον κατέμαθον ἀναστὰς μόλις καὶ τὰ σκέλη ἐκτείνας For within the severe chilly, whilst i personally was looking forward to a few males who have been packing up, while I’d been sitting for a very long time, i noticed that I acquired up and stretched out my legs with difficulty (An.

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